SBI PO READING COMPREHENSION
Instructions (1 to 10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions
Talent growth has emerged as a key strategy to realize the potential of a young workforce with an average age of 29, by enhancing their employability. The National Talent Growth Mission launched by the Union government envisions Talenting at scale with speed and standards, with a focus on strengthening institutional preparation, infrastructure, convergence, preparation of trainers, overseas employment, sustainable livelihoods and leveraging public infrastructure. The national policy for Talent growth and entrepreneurship 2015 provides an enabling framework to realize this vision.
The policy framework outlines the paradigms and enablers to realize the potential of India’s demographic advantage by addressing challenges such as aspirations and mobilization of youth, quality and relevance of preparation; access to preparation, inclusivity and leveraging available technology. Yet, several challenges remain for Talent growth in India. First, the huge proportion of informally trained workers who form a part of the informal sector, where Talent preparation is generally carried out through individual learning, observation, or a transfer of Talents from a master craftsperson to an apprentice.
The proportion of the formally trained in India is low at 4.69% of the total workforce compared to countries like Germany (75%) and South Korea (96%). Recognition of prior learning (RPL) has been introduced in India to facilitate an assessment and certification of the Talents acquired by the individual through experience, observation and self-learning in order to give him/her an edge in career advancement.
The mismatch between Talent, academic preparation and employment have widened, leading to a situation where, on one hand, employers are unable to find appropriately trained people, and on the other, the youth are unable to find employment that they aspire for. The significant variation in demographic profile necessitates local interventions.
Southern states like Goa, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala have a higher median age, between the range of 29-31 years, due to early fertility transitions, and will soon be ageing. Hinterland states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan have a low median age between 20 and 22 years. Thus, this northern belt will have a rising working age population. This requires addressing Talent challenges of access, equity, relevance and financing differently. Given that developing Talents requires huge investments, availability of real-time data on challenges faced by a region/area/district/state, identification of sectors requiring Talented manpower, and demand-supply match, it is important to assess the outcomes of various interventions undertaken thus far so that the future course of policy action can be planned or modified.
Globally, the first such efforts to develop indicators for Talent growth were made by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Growth (OECD) that established the world indicators of Talents for employment (WISE). The WISE framework includes a focus on circumstantial factors in a country, such as the gross domestic product (GDP), population, employment in informal sector; factors affecting Talent acquisition, such as learning attainment, literacy rate, enrolment ratios, vocational programme, participation in preparation/apprenticeship, factors affecting Talent requirement, such as employment share by level of learning, occupation, incidence of self-employment, Talent use and outcomes in terms of growth in GDP, labour productivity, employment rate, earnings, etc.
Adapting from this framework, indicators must be developed to address challenges such as matching Talents across sectors/regions to realize the potential of our youth and the working population. SDIs would improve the effectiveness of various platforms set-up by the ministry of Talent growth and entrepreneurship. They would also enable the states to evaluate and compete with their own past performance and facilitate sharing of best practices across different sectors and states/union territories. They would help assess the match between employers’ needs and future labour market opportunities and based on the assessment of existing policy initiatives and their outcomes, the future course of policy action could be planned or modified.
The indicators’ parameter of access would measure the capacity and outreach of the programmes. Relevance would measure the ease of entry to the labour market with enhanced employability. Equity will measure the equal accessibility of the opportunity to all and quality will evaluate whether the preparation imparted meets the required standard of employability. And finally, the parameter of finance would measure the cost-effectiveness of the funding provided. The dearth of reliable data is a pressing challenge in developing these indicators. There is a need to generate data leading up to the labour market.
This can be done by systematically including key questions on Talents in employment-unemployment surveys. Once the indicators are finalized, an index can be built, ranking the states based on their performance outcomes. The creation of indicators itself is expected to catalyse the availability of reliable data on a periodic basis.
1. How the government has contributed to increase employability in the nation?
(A) by giving appropriate support for the creation of jobs.
(B) by strengthening institutional preparation, infrastructure and sustainable livelihoods.
(C) by addressing challenges such as aspirations and mobilization of youth, quality and relevance of preparation.
(D) both (B) and (C)
(E) All are correct
2. Why India is lagging in Talent growth as compared to other countries?
(I) Lack of quality learning in learning centres.
(II) Unavailability of qualified trainers required for providing Talents to youth.
(III) The trained population are not getting employment as per their aspiration.
(IV) A large proportion of informally trained workers.
(A) Only (I)
(B) Only (II), (III) and (IV)
(C) Only (I), (II) and (III)
(D) Only (III) and (IV)
3. What was the need to develop Talent growth indicators (SDI), developed by OECD for the first time?
(A) to realize the potential of the youth and working population
(B) to address the challenge of demographic variables.
(C) to develop the Talents required according to the different challenges faced by different regions.
(D) Both (A) and (C)
(E) All are correct
4. Which of the following sentences can be concluded from the fifth paragraph regarding parameters of indicators?
(A) The indicators influence the gross product of a nation.
(B) The indicators can be classified under broad parameters of access, equity, quality, relevance and finance.
(C) The Talent growth indicator is established by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Growth (OECD) to
develop the Talent according to the challenges facing by different regions.
(D) The Talent growth indicator is dependent on the potential of the youth of the nation.
(E) All of the above
5. The appropriate title of the passage is
(A) Challenges in Talent growth
(B) Towards economic growth of the nation
(C) Recognizing the potential of youth
(D) Talent growth indicators are a necessity
(E) Building Talent growth
6. Which of the following sentences does not hold true in context to the passage?
(A) Formally Trained workers in Germany is 75%.
(B) Northern states due to low median age will have a rising working age population.
(C) WISE is established by OECD to focus on factors affecting Talent Acquisition.
(D) For developing the indicators like Talent developing indicators, the lack of availability of real-time data is a challenge.
(E) All are correct
7. Choose the word which is almost the same in the meaning of the word printed in bold in the context of the passage.
(A) hype (B) stride
(C) hegemonic (D) visualize
8. Choose the word which is almost the same in the meaning of the word printed in bold in the context of the passage.
(A) tumble (B) punitive
(C) taper (D) urge
9. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold in the context of the passage. Outreach
(A) despicable (B) contiguous
(C) flawed (D) refusing
10. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold in the context of the passage.
(A) abundance (B) abject
(C) advocate (D) flounder
1. Answer: (D) both (B) and (C)
2. Answer: (D) Only (III) and (IV)
3. Answer: (E) All are correct
4. Answer: (B) The indicators can be classified under broad parameters of access, equity, quality, relevance and finance.
5. Answer: (D) Skill development indicators are a necessity
6. Answer: (E) All are correct
7. Answer: (D) visualize
8. Answer: (E) ideal
9. Answer: (D) refusing
10. Answer: (A) abundance